Stock Exchange

By Vikram 19 Comments 24 Sept 2018
Stock Exchange

What is the Stock Exchange?

A stock exchange is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell shares of stock, bonds, and other securities. Many large companies have their stocks listed on a stock exchange. This makes the stock more liquid and thus more attractive to many investors. The exchange may also act as a guarantor of settlement. Other stocks may be traded “over the counter” (OTC), that is, through a dealer. Some large companies will have their stock listed on more than one exchange in different countries, so as to att ract international investors.
A stock exchange facilitates stock brokers to trade company stocks and other securities. A stock may be bought or sold only if it is listed on an exchange. Thus, it is the meeting place of the stock buyers and sellers. India’s premier stock exchanges are the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange.

The BSE and NSE

BSE and NSE

Most of the trading in the Indian stock market takes place on its two stock exchanges: the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). The BSE has been in existence since 1875. The NSE, on the other hand, was founded in 1992 and started trading in 1994. However, both exchanges follow the same trading mechanism, trading hours, settlement process, etc. At the last count, the BSE had about 4,700 listed firms, whereas the rival NSE had about 1,200. Out of all the listed firms on the BSE, only about 500 firms constitute more than 90% of its market capitalization; the rest of the crowd consists of highly illiquid shares.

Almost all the significant firms of India are listed on both the exchanges. NSE enjoys a dominant share in spot trading, with about 70% of the market share, as of 2009, and almost a complete monopoly in derivatives trading, with about a 98% share in this market, also as of 2009. Both exchanges compete for the order flow that leads to reduced costs, market efficiency and innovation. The presence of arbitrageurs keeps the prices on the two stock exchanges within a very tight range.


Stock Exchanges Around The World

By most estimates, approximately 630,000 companies are now traded publicly throughout the world. The growth of global stock markets outside of the United States and Europe is a key reason that the number of public firms continues to grow. The U.S. still has the largest exchange in the world, but many of the largest exchanges now reside in Asia, which continues to grow in influence on the world stage.

Most stocks are traded on exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the NASDAQ. Stock exchanges essentially provide the marketplace to facilitate the buying and selling of stocks among investors. Stock exchanges are regulated by government agencies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States, that oversee the market in order to protect investors from financial fraud and to keep the exchange market functioning smoothly.

Although the vast majority of stocks are traded on exchanges, some stocks are traded over the counter (OTC), where buyers and sellers of stocks commonly trade through a dealer, or “market maker”, who specifically deals with the stock. OTC stocks are stocks that do not meet the minimum price or other requirements for being listed on exchanges.

There are nineteen stock exchanges in the world that have a market capitalization of over US$1 trillion each. They are sometimes referred to as the “$1 Trillion Club”. These exchanges accounted for 87% of global market capitalization in 2015. Some exchanges do include companies from outside the country where the exchange is located.

Here are the list of some major stock exchange groups (top 20 by market capitalization) of issued shares of domestic companies, as of 30 April 2018 –

stock exchange stock exchange
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